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P&M Services (R) Ltd

Printed circuit board Manufacturer, Photoplotting Established 1964  All types of Pcb, surface mount sm, PTH, SS single     UK Printed Circuit Board manufacturers. UK PCB Manufacture since 1964. single sided SS PCB, PTH PCB, IMS PCB, PCB JPG, DFX PCB

ML multi layer printed circuit board  prototypes. Cheap high quality PCBs Printed circuit boards. Fast cheap UK Prototype PCB

Printed circuit boards tooled up from Gerber,JPG,DXF,and most common file types, or camera ready artworks either 2:1 or 1:1 std scale.

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Ferric Chloride.

An old favorite, also very good at staining fingers, clothing, etc brown. Etch rate can be very high but is dependant on solution movement over the surface of the board and temperature. At 70C using Spray etching 1oz copper is removed in a little under a minute, normal etching temperature is more likely  to be 45C. When etching circuits if up to 5% of HCL is added it, increases etch rate, helps to stop staining, and reduces the risk of the solution sludging. Ferric especially with extra HCL makes a very good stainless steel etchent.

When Ferric crystals are mixed with water some free HCL produced through hydrolysis.


 FeCl3 + 3H2O >  Fe(OH)3 + 3HCL


The basic etching reaction takes place in 3 stages. First the ferric ion oxidizes copper to cuprous chloride, which is then further oxidized to cupric chloride.


FeCl+ Cu >   FeCl+ CuCl


FeCl+ CuCl >   FeCl+ CuCl2


As the cupric chloride builds up at further reaction takes place,


 CuCl2 + Cu > 2CuCl


The etch rate quickly falls off after about 17oz/gallon  (100g/l of copper has been etched. For a typical solution containing 5.3lb/gallon (530g/l) of ferric chloride.


Nitric Acid



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